Einstein archive

Dall’università di Leiden – Facoltà di Scienze – Lorentz Institute – Archivio Einstein


Manuscript in Einstein’s handwriting (dated December 1924), with editorial markup. It was evidently used by Einstein to correct the page proofs in early 1925 and left behind in Leiden after his February visit. The publication is in the proceedings of the Berlin Academy of Sciences. (The reprint shown here was Ehrenfest’s copy.) Page 2 of the manuscript reports the last scientific discovery of Einstein’s career: the prediction of the new state of matter now called the Bose-Einstein condensate. (The 2001 Nobel prize went to its experimental observation in a cold dilute gas.) The manuscript follows up on an earlier article, which is preserved in manuscript at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. That earlier work, however, does not yet contain the prediction of the condensation phenomenon

Typed manuscript with handwritten formulas and corrections. The publication (co-authored with Marcel Grossmann) appeared in 1914 in the Zeitschrift für Mathematik und Physik. It reports on the heroic struggle to find generally covariant equations for the gravitational field, in which Einstein would finally succeed a year later. The handwriting of the formulas and corrections appears to be that of Grossman and Einstein, respectively. The typescript contains annotations by Ehrenfest (“does it make sense to separate x and t”), who had intensive discussions with Einstein on this problem. Einstein may have left the document in Leiden upon his visit of March 1914

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